NATIVE LEADERS OF CANADA

Profiles by Times:

1867-1886
Confederation – Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick form the Dominion of Canada; the Industrial Revolution in eastern Canada; the Métis rebellions; Manitoba, British Columbia and Prince Edward Island join Canada; the Canadian Pacific railway is started; Treaties 1 through 7 are signed.

1887-1906
Manitoba Schools Act; Klondike Gold Rush; Alberta and Saskatchewan join Canada; elections in Northwest Territories;Ontario Hydro Created; Quebec border expands to include Cree Lands; Algonquin Park created.

1907-1926
Marquis wheat developed; World War I; Conscription Crisis; Halifax explosion; Winnipeg General Strike; Canadian National Railways created; Insulin discovered.

1927-1946
Market crash triggers Great Depression; Statute of Westminster passed; Unemployment, Old Age Pensions and Medical care insurance introduced; CBC and NFB established; Hydro-Quebec created; World War II

1947-1966
Oil strike in Alberta; Newfoundland joins Canada; NATO created; trans-Canada pipeline started; St. Lawrence Seaway opens; Canadian forces in Korea; Hydro-Quebec expanded; new Canadian flag unfurled.

1967-1986
Expo '67 and Summer Olympics in Montreal; Terry Fox begins his run; first Quebec referendum; passage of the Canada Act and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

1986-2006
Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and later NAFTA; Expo '86 in Vancouver; Calgary Winter Olympics; Goods & Services tax introduced; Oka Crisis; Canadian forces in Persian Gulf, Somalia, Bosnia, and Afghanistan; Nunavut created; gun control law enacted; second Quebec referendum; Meech Lake Accord fails; Nisga'a Agreement signed; severe weather in Ontario and Quebec; Kyoto Accord; Kelowna Accord in abeyance.

Profiles by Times List

The biographies in this section are organized chronologically to help you bring together individuals from the same decades and who may share similar concerns.

(click on an underlined name for a brief biographical profile)

1867 to 1886

Big Bear, Mistahimaskwa, Cree, 1825-1888
Crowfoot, Isapo-Muxika, Blackfoot, 1830-1890
Red Crow, Mékaisto, Blood, 1830-1900
Gabriel Dumont, Métis, 1837-1906
Poundmaker, Pitikwahanapiwiyin, Cree/Blackfoot, 1842-1886
Louis Riel, Métis, 1844-1885
Piapot, Cree/Assiniboine, 1816-1908
Isadore, Kutenai,185?-1894
Rainy Chief, Sotai-Na, Sotenah, Blood
Albert Edward Edenshaw, Eda’nsa, Haida
Old Sun, Natos-Api, Blackfoot
Sweet Grass, Wikaskokiseyin, Plains Cree
The Plain, Pasquah, Pisqua, Plains Cree/Saltaux
Beardy, Kamðyistowesit, Plains Cree
Gabriel Coté, Mimiy, Saulteaux
Little Child, Kiwisünce, Plains Cree/Saulteaux
Lucky Man, Papewes, Papaway, Plains Cree
Little Pine, Minahikosis, Plains Cree
Little Chief, Bull Head, Chula, Sarcee
Jacob Bearspaw, Ozîja Thiha, Stoney
John Norquay, Métis
Calf Shirt, Onistah-Sokaksin, Blood/Namopisi

1887 to 1906

E. Pauline Johnson, Tekahionwake, Mohawk, 1861-1913
Frederick Ogilvie Loft, Onondeyoh, Iroquois, 1861-1934
James Gladstone, Akay-na-muka, Blackfoot, 1887-1971
Kahkewistahaw, Plains Cree
Peter Martin, Oronyatekha, Mohawk
Peter Edmund Jones, Mississauga-Port Credit
Crop Eared Wolf, Makoyi-Opistoki, Blood
Star Blanket, Ahchuchwahauhhatohapit, Plains Cree
Louis Willier, Mostos, Woods Cree

1907 to 1926

John Tootoosis, Cree, 1899-1989
Khatsahlano, Squamish
Andrew Paull, Squamish

1927 to 1946

Tommy Prince, Ojibway, 1915-1977
Malcom Norris, Métis
Jim Brady, Métis
Simon Baker, Khot-la-cha, Sechelt/Squamish
Mary John Sr., Carrier
Gertrude (Gertie) Guerin, Squamish

1947 to 1966

Ralph Steinhauer, Cree, 1905-1987
Frank Calder, Nisga’a, 1915-2006
Walter Perry Dieter, Cree, 1916-1988
Bill Reid, Haida, 1920-1998
Donald Marshall Sr., Mi’kmaq, 1925-1991
Norval Morrisseau, Ojibway, 1931-2007
Max Gros-Louis, Oné Onti, Huron-Wendat, 1931-
Andrew Delisle, Sr., Mohawk,1933-
Bertha Allen, Gwich’in, 1934-
Willie Adams, Inuk, 1934-
Victor Buffalo, Cree, 1941-
Joseph Gosnell, Sr., Nisg’a, 1936-
Harry Daniels, Métis, 1940-2004
Steven L. Point, Xwe li qwel tel, Sto:lo, 193?-
Leonard “Len” Marchand, Okanagan, 1933-
William Commanda, Ojigkwanong, Anishinàbe, 1913-
Beverley Jacobs, Haudenosaunee, Mohawk, 1965-
Freda Ahenakew
Rose Charlie, Sto:lo
Frank Jacobs, Silver Fox, Mohawk
Joseph Norton, Tokwiro, Mohawk
Richard Nerysoo, Gwich’in
Howard Adams, Métis
Robert Smallboy, Cree
David Ahenakew, Sandy Lake
Jim Sinclair, Métis
Aurelien Gill, Innu Montagnais
Philip Paull, Squamish
Walter Patrick Twinn, Sawridge
Shirley Bear, Minqon Minqon, Maliseet
Tom Longboat, Onondaga
Jules Sioui, Huron
Francis Pegahmagabow, Ojibway, 1891-1952

1967 to 1986

Mary Two-Axe Early, Mohawk, 1911-
George Manuel, Neskonlith, 1921-1989
Alanis Obomsawin, Abenaki, 1932-
Gerry St. Germain, Métis, 1937-
James Bartleman, Chippewa, 1939-
Gail Guthrie Valaskakis, Chippewa, 1939-2007
Konrad Sioui, Haskan, Huron-Wendat, 1953-
Muriel Stanley Venne, Métis, 1937-
Robert Louie, Westbank, 1959-
Roberta Jamieson, Mohawk, 1953-
Phil Fontaine, Ojibway, 1944-
Harold Cardinal, Cree, 1945-2005
Noel Starblanket, Cree, 1946-
Mary May Simon, Inuk, 1947-
John Amagoalik, Inuk, 1947-
Georges Erasmus, Dene,1948-
Elijah Harper, Cree, 1949-
Billy Diamond, Cree, 1949-2010
Ted Moses, Cree, 1950-
Matthew Mukash, Cree, 1951-
Ethel Blondin-Andrew, Dene, 1951-
John Kim Bell, Mohawk, 1952-
Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Inuk, 1953-
Rosemarie Kuptana, Inuk, 1954-
Ghislain Picard, Innu Montagnais, 1955-
Matthew Coon Come, Cree. 1956-
Buffy Ste. Marie, (Cree), 1941-
Sandra Lovelace Nicholas, Maliseet, 1948-
Nellie Cournoyea, Inuk, 1940-
Harry Laforme, Mississaugas of New Credit, 1947-
Ovide Mercredi, Cree, 1946-
Dan George, Geswanouth Slahoot, Salish, 1899-1981
Jose Kusugak, Inuk
Stan Beardy, Nishnabe-Aski
Mike Mitchell, Kanantakeron, Mohawk
Stewart Phillip, Penticton
Audrey Mae Poitras, Métis
Dan Goodleaf, Mohawk
John Bekale, Dene
Abel Bosum, Cree
Delbert Riley, Chippewa
Dwight Allister Dorey, Mi'kmaq
Wendy Grant-John, Musqueam
Bill Wilson, Kwawkgewlth/Musgamagw
Tony Belcourt, Métis
Charlie Watt, Inuk
James Youngblood Henderson, Sakej, Chickasaw/Cheyenne
Tagak Curley, Inuk
Joe Mathias, Squamish
Anna Mae Aquash, Naguset Eask, Mi’kmaq
Joseph Onasakeniat, Sosé Onasakeniat, Mohawk
George Watts, Wah-meesh-mis, Nuu-chah-nulth
Clément Chartier, Métis
Edward John, Tl'azt'en
Ken Malloway, Wileleq, Tzeachten
Ookalik Eegeesiak, Inuk
Larry Sault, Mississauga
Violet Pachanos, Cree
Bernard Ominiyak, Lubicon Lake
Stephen Kakfwi, Dene/Slavey
Monik Sioui, Huron/Abenaki
Ron Evans, Cree
Basil H. Johnson
Edith Josie, Gwich'in, 1921-2009

1987 to present

Ellen Gabriel, Mohawk, 1959-
Paul Okalik, Inuk, 1964-
Patrick Brazeau, Algonquin, 1975-
Shawn Atleo,Ah-in-chut, Ahousaht, 1967-
Daphne Odjig, Potawatomi, Odawa, 1919-
Murray Sinclair, Mizanay Gheezhik, Ojibway, 1951-
Jody Wilson-Raybould, Puglaas, Kwakwaka’wakw, 1971-
Perry Bellegarde, Cree, 1962-
Marion Buller, Cree
Eva Ottawa, Atikamekw
Carol Geddes, T'lingit
Gil Cardinal

Tom Jackson
Tina Keeper
Florent Vollant, Montagnais
Kenojuak Ashevak, Inuk
Jeannette C. Armstrong
Tomson Highway

Martha Flaherty, Inuk
Francis Pegahmagabow, Inuk
Byron Chief Moon

 

   
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